Africa Countries

Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, covering approximately 30.3 million square kilometers (11.7 million square miles). It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Red Sea to the northeast. As of 2024, there are 54 recognized countries in Africa. Please note that this number can change due to various factors such as geopolitical events, new declarations of independence, or changes in international recognition.

1. Algeria

  • Capital: Algiers
  • Population: Approximately 44 million
  • Language: Arabic (official), Berber languages
  • Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Algeria, located in North Africa, is the largest country on the continent by land area. It is known for its diverse landscapes, including the Sahara Desert, ancient Roman ruins, and vibrant culture.

2. Angola

  • Capital: Luanda
  • Population: Around 32 million
  • Language: Portuguese (official), various Bantu languages
  • Currency: Angolan kwanza (AOA)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Angola, situated in Southern Africa, is known for its rich natural resources, including oil and diamonds. It has a complex history marked by colonialism, independence struggle, and civil war.

3. Benin

  • Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (administrative)
  • Population: Approximately 12 million
  • Language: French (official), Fon, Yoruba
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Benin, situated in West Africa, is known for its rich cultural heritage, including the ancient kingdom of Dahomey. It is a stable democracy with a growing economy.

4. Botswana

  • Capital: Gaborone
  • Population: Around 2.4 million
  • Language: English (official), Tswana
  • Currency: Botswana pula (BWP)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic

Botswana, located in Southern Africa, is known for its stable democracy, thriving economy, and abundant wildlife, including the Okavango Delta and Chobe National Park.

5. Burkina Faso

  • Capital: Ouagadougou
  • Population: Approximately 21 million
  • Language: French (official), Moore, Dioula
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Burkina Faso, situated in West Africa, is known for its vibrant culture, including music and dance festivals. It faces challenges such as poverty, political instability, and terrorism.

6. Burundi

  • Capital: Gitega (official), Bujumbura (former capital)
  • Population: Around 11 million
  • Language: Kirundi (official), French, English
  • Currency: Burundian franc (BIF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Burundi, located in East Africa, is known for its beautiful landscapes and ethnic diversity. It has experienced periods of ethnic conflict and political instability.

7. Cabo Verde

  • Capital: Praia
  • Population: Approximately 560,000
  • Language: Portuguese (official), Cape Verdean Creole
  • Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Cabo Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of West Africa, is known for its stunning beaches, vibrant music, and successful transition to democracy.

8. Cameroon

  • Capital: Yaoundé (official), Douala (economic)
  • Population: Around 27 million
  • Language: French, English (official), Cameroonian Pidgin
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Cameroon, located in Central Africa, is known for its cultural diversity, including over 200 ethnic groups. It has a mix of savanna, rainforest, and coastal ecosystems.

9. Central African Republic (CAR)

  • Capital: Bangui
  • Population: Approximately 5 million
  • Language: French (official), Sango
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

The Central African Republic, situated in Central Africa, is known for its diverse wildlife, including elephants and gorillas, and challenges such as political instability and ethnic conflict.

10. Chad

  • Capital: N’Djamena
  • Population: Around 16 million
  • Language: French, Arabic (official)
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Chad, located in Central Africa, is known for its vast desert landscapes, including the Sahara Desert in the north. It faces challenges such as poverty, political instability, and conflict.

11. Comoros

  • Capital: Moroni
  • Population: Approximately 850,000
  • Language: Comorian (Shikomor), Arabic, French
  • Currency: Comorian franc (KMF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Comoros, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean off the coast of East Africa, is known for its volcanic islands, coral reefs, and diverse culture influenced by African, Arab, and French heritage.

12. Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

  • Capital: Kinshasa
  • Population: Over 100 million
  • Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kikongo, Tshiluba
  • Currency: Congolese franc (CDF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

The Democratic Republic of the Congo, located in Central Africa, is the second-largest country in Africa by land area and is known for its vast rainforests, rich mineral resources, and ongoing conflicts.

13. Djibouti

  • Capital: Djibouti City
  • Population: Approximately 1 million
  • Language: French, Arabic (official)
  • Currency: Djiboutian franc (DJF)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic

Djibouti, located in the Horn of Africa, is known for its strategic location at the entrance to the Red Sea and its role as a major shipping hub. It hosts military bases for several countries.

14. Egypt

  • Capital: Cairo
  • Population: Over 100 million
  • Language: Arabic (official)
  • Currency: Egyptian pound (EGP)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Egypt, located in North Africa, is known for its ancient civilization, including the pyramids of Giza and the temples of Luxor. It has a diverse culture and a strategic position in the Middle East.

15. Equatorial Guinea

  • Capital: Malabo (official), Bata (largest city)
  • Population: Around 1.4 million
  • Language: Spanish, French, Portuguese (official)
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Equatorial Guinea, situated in Central Africa, is known for its oil wealth and authoritarian government. Despite its natural resources, it faces challenges such as poverty and political repression.

16. Eritrea

  • Capital: Asmara
  • Population: Approximately 3.5 million
  • Language: Tigrinya, Arabic (official), English
  • Currency: Eritrean nakfa (ERN)
  • Government: Unitary one-party presidential republic

Eritrea, located in the Horn of Africa, is known for its rugged coastline along the Red Sea and its unique blend of African, Middle Eastern, and Italian influences.

17. Eswatini (Swaziland)

  • Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
  • Population: Around 1.2 million
  • Language: Swazi (official), English
  • Currency: Swazi lilangeni (SZL), South African rand (ZAR)
  • Government: Unitary absolute monarchy

Eswatini, a landlocked country in Southern Africa, is known for its cultural festivals, including the colorful Umhlanga (Reed Dance) and Incwala ceremonies. It is one of the last absolute monarchies in the world.

18. Ethiopia

  • Capital: Addis Ababa
  • Population: Over 115 million
  • Language: Amharic (official), Oromo, Tigrinya, Somali
  • Currency: Ethiopian birr (ETB)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic

Ethiopia, located in the Horn of Africa, is known for its ancient history, including the kingdom of Aksum and the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela. It is the second-most populous country in Africa.

19. Gabon

  • Capital: Libreville
  • Population: Approximately 2.2 million
  • Language: French (official)
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Gabon, situated in Central Africa, is known for its rich biodiversity, including dense rainforests and diverse wildlife. It has a small population relative to its size and abundant natural resources.

20. Gambia

  • Capital: Banjul
  • Population: Around 2.4 million
  • Language: English (official), Mandinka, Wolof
  • Currency: Gambian dalasi (GMD)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

The Gambia, a small country in West Africa, is known for its riverine landscape and diverse ecosystems, including mangrove swamps and savanna. It is entirely surrounded by Senegal.

21. Ghana

  • Capital: Accra
  • Population: Approximately 31 million
  • Language: English (official)
  • Currency: Ghanaian cedi (GHS)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Ghana, located in West Africa, is known for its rich history, including the ancient kingdom of Ashanti and its role in the transatlantic slave trade. It is one of Africa’s fastest-growing economies.

22. Guinea

  • Capital: Conakry
  • Population: Around 13 million
  • Language: French (official), various indigenous languages
  • Currency: Guinean franc (GNF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Guinea, situated in West Africa, is known for its diverse landscapes, including savannas, mountains, and rainforests. It is rich in natural resources, including bauxite and gold.

23. Guinea-Bissau

  • Capital: Bissau
  • Population: Approximately 2 million
  • Language: Portuguese (official), Crioulo, various African languages
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Guinea-Bissau, located in West Africa, is known for its tropical climate, mangrove swamps, and political instability. It is one of the poorest countries in the world.

24. Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)

  • Capital: Yamoussoukro (official), Abidjan (economic)
  • Population: Over 26 million
  • Language: French (official), various indigenous languages
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Ivory Coast, situated in West Africa, is known for its cocoa production and diverse culture. It has faced challenges such as civil war and political instability but has made strides in economic development.

25. Kenya

  • Capital: Nairobi
  • Population: Approximately 54 million
  • Language: Swahili, English (official)
  • Currency: Kenyan shilling (KES)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Kenya, located in East Africa, is known for its diverse wildlife, including the Maasai Mara National Reserve and Mount Kenya. It is a regional hub for trade, finance, and tourism.

26. Lesotho

  • Capital: Maseru
  • Population: Around 2.2 million
  • Language: Sesotho, English (official)
  • Currency: Lesotho loti (LSL), South African rand (ZAR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Lesotho, a landlocked country in Southern Africa, is known for its mountainous terrain and traditional Basotho culture. It is entirely surrounded by South Africa.

27. Liberia

  • Capital: Monrovia
  • Population: Approximately 5 million
  • Language: English (official)
  • Currency: Liberian dollar (LRD)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Liberia, located in West Africa, is known for being founded by freed American slaves in the 19th century. It has a rich cultural heritage and diverse ecosystems, including rainforests and mangroves.

28. Libya

  • Capital: Tripoli
  • Population: Around 7 million
  • Language: Arabic (official)
  • Currency: Libyan dinar (LYD)
  • Government: Unitary provisional presidential republic

Libya, situated in North Africa, is known for its vast desert landscapes, including the Sahara Desert. It has faced political instability and conflict since the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.

29. Madagascar

  • Capital: Antananarivo
  • Population: Approximately 27 million
  • Language: Malagasy, French (official)
  • Currency: Malagasy ariary (MGA)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Madagascar, an island nation in the Indian Ocean off the coast of East Africa, is known for its unique biodiversity, including lemurs and baobab trees. It has a rich cultural heritage influenced by Southeast Asian, African, and European traditions.

30. Malawi

  • Capital: Lilongwe
  • Population: Around 20 million
  • Language: Chewa, English (official)
  • Currency: Malawian kwacha (MWK)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Malawi, located in Southeast Africa, is known for its stunning landscapes, including Lake Malawi, and warm-hearted people. It faces challenges such as poverty, HIV/AIDS, and environmental degradation.

31. Mali

  • Capital: Bamako
  • Population: Approximately 20 million
  • Language: French (official), Bambara
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Mali, situated in West Africa, is known for its rich history, including the ancient Mali Empire and the city of Timbuktu. It faces challenges such as political instability and Islamist insurgency.

32. Mauritania

  • Capital: Nouakchott
  • Population: Around 4.6 million
  • Language: Arabic (official), French
  • Currency: Mauritanian ouguiya (MRU)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Mauritania, located in Northwest Africa, is known for its vast desert landscapes, including the Sahara Desert. It has a diverse ethnic composition and a history of slavery.

33. Mauritius

  • Capital: Port Louis
  • Population: Approximately 1.3 million
  • Language: English (official), French, Mauritian Creole
  • Currency: Mauritian rupee (MUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Mauritius, an island nation in the Indian Ocean, is known for its stunning beaches, coral reefs, and multicultural society. It has a strong economy and is a popular tourist destination.

34. Morocco

  • Capital: Rabat
  • Population: Over 37 million
  • Language: Arabic (official), Berber languages, French
  • Currency: Moroccan dirham (MAD)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Morocco, located in North Africa, is known for its rich history, including the cities of Marrakech, Fez, and Casablanca. It has a diverse culture influenced by Arab, Berber, and European traditions.

35. Mozambique

  • Capital: Maputo
  • Population: Approximately 31 million
  • Language: Portuguese (official)
  • Currency: Mozambican metical (MZN)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Mozambique, situated in Southeast Africa, is known for its stunning coastline along the Indian Ocean and diverse wildlife. It has faced challenges such as civil war and natural disasters.

36. Namibia

  • Capital: Windhoek
  • Population: Around 2.5 million
  • Language: English (official), Afrikaans, German, various indigenous languages
  • Currency: Namibian dollar (NAD), South African rand (ZAR)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Namibia, located in Southern Africa, is known for its stunning desert landscapes, including the Namib Desert and the Fish River Canyon. It has a diverse culture and abundant wildlife.

37. Niger

  • Capital: Niamey
  • Population: Approximately 25 million
  • Language: French (official), Hausa, Zarma
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Niger, situated in West Africa, is known for its vast desert landscapes, including the Sahara Desert. It faces challenges such as poverty, food insecurity, and political instability.

38. Nigeria

  • Capital: Abuja
  • Population: Over 206 million
  • Language: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo
  • Currency: Nigerian naira (NGN)
  • Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic

Nigeria, located in West Africa, is the most populous country in Africa and is known for its diverse culture, vibrant music scene, and Nollywood film industry. It has a large and growing economy but faces challenges such as corruption and security threats.

39. Rwanda

  • Capital: Kigali
  • Population: Around 13 million
  • Language: Kinyarwanda (official), English, French, Swahili
  • Currency: Rwandan franc (RWF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Rwanda, located in East Africa, is known for its remarkable recovery from the 1994 genocide and its focus on reconciliation, development, and environmental conservation. It has made significant progress in various sectors, including healthcare and technology.

40. São Tomé and Príncipe

  • Capital: São Tomé
  • Population: Approximately 220,000
  • Language: Portuguese (official)
  • Currency: São Tomé and Príncipe dobra (STN)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

São Tomé and Príncipe, an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, is known for its lush rainforests, pristine beaches, and cocoa production. It is one of Africa’s smallest countries.

41. Senegal

  • Capital: Dakar
  • Population: Approximately 17 million
  • Language: French (official), Wolof
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Senegal, situated in West Africa, is known for its vibrant culture, including music, dance, and literature. It has a stable democracy and is a regional hub for trade and finance.

42. Seychelles

  • Capital: Victoria
  • Population: Around 98,000
  • Language: Seychellois Creole, English, French
  • Currency: Seychellois rupee (SCR)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, is known for its stunning beaches, crystal-clear waters, and thriving tourism industry. It has a high standard of living and is one of Africa’s smallest countries.

43. Sierra Leone

  • Capital: Freetown
  • Population: Approximately 8 million
  • Language: English (official), Krio
  • Currency: Sierra Leonean leone (SLL)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Sierra Leone, located in West Africa, is known for its diamond mines, tropical rainforests, and vibrant culture. It has faced challenges such as civil war and the Ebola epidemic.

44. Somalia

  • Capital: Mogadishu
  • Population: Approximately 15 million
  • Language: Somali (official), Arabic
  • Currency: Somali shilling (SOS)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic

Somalia, located in the Horn of Africa, has faced decades of conflict, resulting in political instability and humanitarian crises. It has a rich cultural heritage and diverse ecosystems, including deserts and coastlines.

45. South Africa

  • Capital: Pretoria (executive), Bloemfontein (judicial), Cape Town (legislative)
  • Population: Over 60 million
  • Language: 11 official languages, including isiZulu, isiXhosa, Afrikaans, English
  • Currency: South African rand (ZAR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

South Africa, located at the southern tip of Africa, is known for its diverse culture, stunning landscapes, and history of apartheid. It has the most developed economy in Africa and is a regional power.

46. South Sudan

  • Capital: Juba
  • Population: Approximately 11 million
  • Language: English (official), Arabic
  • Currency: South Sudanese pound (SSP)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

South Sudan, the youngest country in Africa, gained independence from Sudan in 2011 after decades of civil war. It faces challenges such as political instability, ethnic conflict, and economic underdevelopment.

47. Sudan

  • Capital: Khartoum
  • Population: Over 43 million
  • Language: Arabic (official), English
  • Currency: Sudanese pound (SDG)
  • Government: Federal presidential republic

Sudan, located in North Africa, is the third-largest country in Africa by land area. It has a diverse population and culture but has faced challenges such as civil war, conflict in Darfur, and political instability.

48. Tanzania

  • Capital: Dodoma (official), Dar es Salaam (largest city)
  • Population: Approximately 60 million
  • Language: Swahili (official), English
  • Currency: Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Tanzania, located in East Africa, is known for its stunning natural beauty, including Mount Kilimanjaro and the Serengeti National Park. It has a diverse culture and economy, with agriculture being a significant sector.

49. Togo

  • Capital: Lomé
  • Population: Around 8 million
  • Language: French (official), Ewe, Kabiye
  • Currency: West African CFA franc (XOF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Togo, situated in West Africa, is known for its palm-lined beaches, vibrant markets, and rich cultural heritage. It has made progress in political stability and economic development in recent years.

50. Tunisia

  • Capital: Tunis
  • Population: Approximately 12 million
  • Language: Arabic (official), Tunisian Arabic, French
  • Currency: Tunisian dinar (TND)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Tunisia, located in North Africa, is known for being the birthplace of the Arab Spring and its ancient ruins, including the Roman city of Carthage. It has a diverse culture and a growing tourism industry.

51. Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville)

  • Capital: Brazzaville
  • Population: Approximately 5.4 million
  • Language: French (official), Lingala, Kituba
  • Currency: Central African CFA franc (XAF)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

The Republic of the Congo, often referred to as Congo-Brazzaville to distinguish it from its neighbor, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is located in Central Africa. It is known for its lush rainforests, wildlife, and oil reserves. Despite its natural resources, the country faces challenges such as poverty and political instability.

52. Uganda

  • Capital: Kampala
  • Population: Approximately 47 million
  • Language: English (official), Swahili, Luganda
  • Currency: Ugandan shilling (UGX)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Uganda, located in East Africa, is known for its diverse landscapes, including the Rwenzori Mountains and Lake Victoria. It has a rich cultural heritage, including traditional kingdoms and wildlife conservation efforts in national parks like Bwindi Impenetrable Forest.

53. Zambia

  • Capital: Lusaka
  • Population: Approximately 18 million
  • Language: English (official), Bemba, Nyanja
  • Currency: Zambian kwacha (ZMW)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Zambia, situated in Southern Africa, is known for its stunning Victoria Falls, diverse wildlife, and copper mining industry. It has a stable democracy but faces challenges such as poverty and healthcare issues.

54. Zimbabwe

  • Capital: Harare
  • Population: Approximately 15 million
  • Language: English, Shona, Sindebele (official)
  • Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (ZWL), US dollar (USD)
  • Government: Unitary dominant-party presidential republic

Zimbabwe, located in Southern Africa, is known for its ancient civilization of Great Zimbabwe and its diverse wildlife in national parks like Hwange and Mana Pools. It has faced challenges such as economic instability and political tensions, but it also boasts a rich cultural heritage and natural beauty.