Europe Countries

Europe is the third-most populous continent, with an estimated population of over 740 million people. It covers an area of approximately 10.18 million square kilometers (3.93 million square miles). Europe is divided into 46 countries, each with its own government and political system. The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are primarily located in Europe. It has its own institutions and laws, and it aims to promote economic and political cooperation among its members.

1. Albania

  • Capital: Tirana
  • Population: Approximately 2.8 million
  • Language: Albanian
  • Currency: Albanian lek (ALL)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Albania, located in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its rich history, stunning coastline along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, and cultural heritage influenced by Greek, Roman, and Ottoman civilizations.

2. Andorra

  • Capital: Andorra la Vella
  • Population: Around 77,000
  • Language: Catalan
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary semi-elective diarchy

Andorra, a small landlocked country between France and Spain in the Pyrenees mountains, is known for its ski resorts, duty-free shopping, and medieval architecture.

3. Austria

  • Capital: Vienna
  • Population: Approximately 8.9 million
  • Language: German
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic

Austria, located in Central Europe, is known for its rich cultural heritage, including classical music composers like Mozart and Strauss, as well as its stunning Alpine landscapes and historic cities.

4. Belarus

  • Capital: Minsk
  • Population: Around 9.4 million
  • Language: Belarusian, Russian
  • Currency: Belarusian ruble (BYN)
  • Government: Unitary presidential republic

Belarus, situated in Eastern Europe, is known for its Soviet-era architecture, vast forests, and strong industrial base. It has a complex relationship with Russia and has faced criticism for its human rights record.

5. Belgium

  • Capital: Brussels
  • Population: Approximately 11.5 million
  • Language: Dutch, French, German
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Belgium, located in Western Europe, is known for its medieval towns, delicious chocolates, and waffles. It hosts the headquarters of the European Union and NATO.

6. Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Capital: Sarajevo
  • Population: Around 3.3 million
  • Language: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
  • Currency: Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (BAM)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic

Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its complex ethnic and religious diversity, as well as its stunning natural landscapes and historic sites.

7. Bulgaria

  • Capital: Sofia
  • Population: Approximately 7 million
  • Language: Bulgarian
  • Currency: Bulgarian lev (BGN)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic

Bulgaria, located in Southeast Europe, is known for its rich history, including ancient Thracian ruins and medieval monasteries. It boasts beautiful Black Sea beaches and picturesque mountain ranges.

8. Croatia

  • Capital: Zagreb
  • Population: Around 4 million
  • Language: Croatian
  • Currency: Croatian kuna (HRK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Croatia, situated in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea, is known for its stunning coastline, historic cities like Dubrovnik and Split, and rich cultural heritage.

9. Cyprus

  • Capital: Nicosia
  • Population: Approximately 1.2 million (whole island)
  • Language: Greek, Turkish
  • Currency: Euro (EUR) in the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish lira (TRY) in Northern Cyprus
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic (Republic of Cyprus), Semi-presidential republic (Northern Cyprus)

Cyprus, an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean, is known for its beautiful beaches, ancient ruins, and divided capital city. The northern part of the island is occupied by Turkish forces and is recognized only by Turkey.

10. Czech Republic

  • Capital: Prague
  • Population: Approximately 10.7 million
  • Language: Czech
  • Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

The Czech Republic, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning architecture, including Prague Castle and Charles Bridge, as well as its delicious beer and rich cultural heritage.

11. Denmark

  • Capital: Copenhagen
  • Population: Around 5.8 million
  • Language: Danish
  • Currency: Danish krone (DKK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Denmark, situated in Northern Europe, is known for its progressive social policies, design and architecture, as well as its beautiful coastline and historic landmarks like the Tivoli Gardens and Kronborg Castle.

12. Estonia

  • Capital: Tallinn
  • Population: Approximately 1.3 million
  • Language: Estonian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic

Estonia, located in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its digital innovation, stunning medieval architecture, and beautiful landscapes, including forests, lakes, and islands.

13. Finland

  • Capital: Helsinki
  • Population: Around 5.5 million
  • Language: Finnish, Swedish
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Finland, situated in Northern Europe, is known for its picturesque lakes, forests, and saunas. It has a strong education system and is famous for producing Nokia mobile phones and renowned architects and designers.

14. France

  • Capital: Paris
  • Population: Over 67 million
  • Language: French
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic

France, located in Western Europe, is known for its rich history, art, and culture, including landmarks such as the Eiffel Tower, Louvre Museum, and Palace of Versailles. It is also famous for its cuisine, fashion, and wine regions.

15. Germany

  • Capital: Berlin
  • Population: Approximately 83 million
  • Language: German
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic

Germany, situated in Central Europe, is known for its historic cities, cultural heritage, and technological innovation. It is Europe’s largest economy and plays a central role in the European Union.

16. Greece

  • Capital: Athens
  • Population: Around 10.4 million
  • Language: Greek
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic

Greece, located in Southern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its ancient history, including the birthplace of democracy in Athens and the iconic ruins of ancient civilizations such as the Acropolis and Delphi.

17. Hungary

  • Capital: Budapest
  • Population: Approximately 9.7 million
  • Language: Hungarian
  • Currency: Hungarian forint (HUF)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Hungary, situated in Central Europe, is known for its stunning architecture, thermal baths, and rich cultural heritage. Budapest, divided by the Danube River, is famous for its historic sites and vibrant nightlife.

18. Iceland

  • Capital: Reykjavik
  • Population: Around 360,000
  • Language: Icelandic
  • Currency: Icelandic króna (ISK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Iceland, located in the North Atlantic, is known for its breathtaking natural landscapes, including geysers, hot springs, waterfalls, and glaciers. It has a small population and a high standard of living.

19. Ireland

  • Capital: Dublin
  • Population: Approximately 4.9 million
  • Language: Irish, English
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Ireland, situated in Northwestern Europe, is known for its stunning countryside, vibrant cities, and rich literary and musical traditions. It is famous for its hospitality, Guinness beer, and ancient archaeological sites.

20. Italy

  • Capital: Rome
  • Population: Over 60 million
  • Language: Italian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Italy, located in Southern Europe, is known for its unparalleled cultural heritage, including ancient Roman ruins, Renaissance art and architecture, and delicious cuisine. It is home to iconic landmarks such as the Colosseum, Venice canals, and Leaning Tower of Pisa.

21. Kosovo

  • Capital: Pristina
  • Population: Approximately 1.8 million
  • Language: Albanian, Serbian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Kosovo, a partially recognized state in Southeast Europe, declared independence from Serbia in 2008. It has a predominantly Albanian population and a complex political and ethnic landscape.

22. Latvia

  • Capital: Riga
  • Population: Around 1.9 million
  • Language: Latvian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Latvia, located in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its stunning Art Nouveau architecture, dense forests, and rich cultural heritage. It has a small population and a high standard of living.

23. Liechtenstein

  • Capital: Vaduz
  • Population: Approximately 39,000
  • Language: German
  • Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Liechtenstein, a doubly landlocked microstate in Central Europe, is known for its stunning Alpine landscapes, low taxes, and strong financial sector.

24. Lithuania

  • Capital: Vilnius
  • Population: Approximately 2.8 million
  • Language: Lithuanian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Lithuania, situated in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its medieval architecture, lush forests, and sandy beaches along the Curonian Spit. It has a rich cultural heritage and is famous for its basketball tradition.

25. Luxembourg

  • Capital: Luxembourg City
  • Population: Around 634,000
  • Language: Luxembourgish, French, German
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Luxembourg, located in Western Europe, is known for its medieval old town, stunning castles, and vibrant financial sector. It is one of the smallest countries in Europe but has one of the highest GDP per capita in the world.

26. Malta

  • Capital: Valletta
  • Population: Approximately 514,000
  • Language: Maltese, English
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Malta, an island country in the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its rich history, including ancient temples, medieval towns, and Knights of Malta fortifications. It has a warm climate and is a popular tourist destination.

27. Moldova

  • Capital: Chisinau
  • Population: Around 2.6 million
  • Language: Moldovan (Romanian)
  • Currency: Moldovan leu (MDL)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Moldova, situated in Eastern Europe, is known for its fertile agricultural land, historic monasteries, and wine production. It is one of the poorest countries in Europe and has faced challenges such as political instability and corruption.

28. Monaco

  • Capital: Monaco
  • Population: Approximately 39,000
  • Language: French
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary constitutional monarchy

Monaco, a small city-state on the French Riviera, is known for its glitz and glamour, including the famous Monte Carlo Casino, luxurious yachts, and Formula One Grand Prix.

29. Montenegro

  • Capital: Podgorica
  • Population: Approximately 620,000
  • Language: Montenegrin
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Montenegro, located in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea, is known for its stunning coastline, rugged mountains, and historic towns like Kotor and Budva.

30. Netherlands

  • Capital: Amsterdam (constitutional), The Hague (seat of government)
  • Population: Over 17 million
  • Language: Dutch
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

The Netherlands, situated in Northwestern Europe, is known for its flat landscape, extensive canal systems, windmills, tulip fields, and cycling routes. It has a liberal culture and is famous for its cheese, wooden shoes, and historic cities.

31. North Macedonia

  • Capital: Skopje
  • Population: Approximately 2.1 million
  • Language: Macedonian
  • Currency: Macedonian denar (MKD)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

North Macedonia, located in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its rich history, including ancient ruins, Ottoman heritage, and diverse cultural influences. It gained independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.

32. Norway

  • Capital: Oslo
  • Population: Around 5.4 million
  • Language: Norwegian
  • Currency: Norwegian krone (NOK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Norway, situated in Northern Europe, is known for its stunning fjords, mountains, and northern lights. It has a high standard of living, strong social welfare system, and is a major producer of oil and natural gas.

33. Poland

  • Capital: Warsaw
  • Population: Approximately 38 million
  • Language: Polish
  • Currency: Polish złoty (PLN)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Poland, located in Central Europe, is known for its rich history, including medieval castles, Renaissance architecture, and wartime history. It has a strong cultural heritage, with contributions to literature, music, and science.

34. Portugal

  • Capital: Lisbon
  • Population: Over 10 million
  • Language: Portuguese
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic

Portugal, situated in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, is known for its stunning coastline, historic cities, and delicious cuisine, including port wine and pastéis de nata. It was a major colonial power during the Age of Discovery.

35. Romania

  • Capital: Bucharest
  • Population: Approximately 19 million
  • Language: Romanian
  • Currency: Romanian leu (RON)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Romania, located in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its diverse landscapes, including the Carpathian Mountains, medieval castles, and vibrant cities. It has a rich cultural heritage influenced by Roman, Ottoman, and Hungarian civilizations.

36. Russia

  • Capital: Moscow
  • Population: Over 145 million
  • Language: Russian
  • Currency: Russian ruble (RUB)
  • Government: Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic

Russia, the largest country in the world, spans Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is known for its vast landscapes, including Siberian forests, tundra, and the world’s deepest lake, Lake Baikal. It is a major global power with significant cultural, economic, and political influence.

37. San Marino

  • Capital: San Marino
  • Population: Approximately 34,000
  • Language: Italian
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

San Marino, a microstate surrounded by Italy, is known for its medieval architecture, including the fortified town of San Marino and Mount Titano. It is one of the world’s oldest republics.

38. Serbia

  • Capital: Belgrade
  • Population: Approximately 7 million
  • Language: Serbian
  • Currency: Serbian dinar (RSD)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Serbia, located in Southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, is known for its rich history, Orthodox monasteries, and vibrant cultural scene. It was part of Yugoslavia until its dissolution in the 1990s.

39. Slovakia

  • Capital: Bratislava
  • Population: Around 5.5 million
  • Language: Slovak
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Slovakia, situated in Central Europe, is known for its medieval castles, stunning mountains, and thermal springs. It was formerly part of Czechoslovakia until the peaceful dissolution in 1993.

40. Slovenia

  • Capital: Ljubljana
  • Population: Approximately 2.1 million
  • Language: Slovene
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Slovenia, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning Alpine scenery, picturesque lakes, and historic cities like Ljubljana and Bled. It has a high standard of living and is famous for its wine and outdoor recreation.

41. Spain

  • Capital: Madrid
  • Population: Over 47 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Spain, located in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, is known for its diverse culture, including flamenco music, bullfighting, and regional cuisines. It has stunning beaches, historic landmarks, and vibrant cities like Barcelona and Seville.

42. Sweden

  • Capital: Stockholm
  • Population: Approximately 10.4 million
  • Language: Swedish
  • Currency: Swedish krona (SEK)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Sweden, situated in Northern Europe, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, including forests, lakes, and islands. It has a high standard of living, progressive social policies, and a strong welfare system.

43. Switzerland

  • Capital: Bern
  • Population: Around 8.5 million
  • Language: German, French, Italian, Romansh
  • Currency: Swiss franc (CHF)
  • Government: Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party parliamentary directorial republic

Switzerland, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning Alpine scenery, precision engineering, and financial services sector. It is famous for its neutrality, chocolate, watches, and efficient public transportation.

44. Ukraine

  • Capital: Kyiv
  • Population: Approximately 41 million
  • Language: Ukrainian
  • Currency: Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH)
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic

Ukraine, the largest country in Europe by land area, is known for its diverse landscapes, including the Carpathian Mountains, Black Sea coastline, and historic cities like Lviv and Odessa. It has faced challenges such as political instability and conflict with Russia.

45. United Kingdom

  • Capital: London
  • Population: Over 68 million
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Pound sterling (GBP)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

The United Kingdom, comprising England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, is known for its rich history, iconic landmarks, and cultural contributions to the world. It was a major colonial power and played a significant role in shaping global politics and culture.

46. Vatican City

  • Capital: Vatican City
  • Population: Approximately 800
  • Language: Italian, Latin
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • Government: Unitary absolute monarchy under a theocratic elective monarchy

Vatican City, the smallest independent state in the world, is the spiritual and administrative center of the Roman Catholic Church. It is known for its iconic landmarks, including St. Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel.