European Union Countries

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states located primarily in Europe. It has a population of over 446 million people, making it one of the largest single markets in the world. Here, we will list each of the EU member states, providing key state facts, cultural insights, and historical context for each nation.

1. Austria

Austria, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning Alpine landscapes, rich cultural heritage, and historical significance. It has played a pivotal role in European history and is renowned for its classical music tradition.

  • Population: Approximately 8.9 million people.
  • Area: 83,879 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Vienna.
  • Official Language: German.
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Graz, Linz, Salzburg.
  • Famous Landmarks: Schönbrunn Palace, Hofburg Palace, Belvedere Palace.
  • Cultural Contributions: Classical music (Mozart, Beethoven), Viennese cuisine (Sachertorte, Wiener Schnitzel), and Austrian literature (Franz Kafka, Arthur Schnitzler).
  • Historical Significance: Former center of the Habsburg Empire, birthplace of the Vienna Secession movement, and neutral during the Cold War.

2. Belgium

Belgium, located in Western Europe, is known for its medieval towns, rich cultural heritage, and culinary delights such as chocolate, waffles, and beer. It is also home to the headquarters of the European Union and NATO.

  • Population: Approximately 11.5 million people.
  • Area: 30,689 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Brussels.
  • Official Languages: Dutch, French, German.
  • Government: Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges.
  • Famous Landmarks: Grand Place, Atomium, Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula.
  • Cultural Contributions: Flemish and Walloon traditions, Belgian surrealism (René Magritte), and comic strips (Tintin, The Smurfs).
  • Historical Significance: Part of various European empires, site of major battles in both World Wars, and a founding member of the European Union.

3. Bulgaria

Bulgaria, located in Southeast Europe, is known for its diverse landscapes, rich history, and cultural heritage. It is famous for its Thracian and Roman ruins, Orthodox Christian monasteries, and vibrant folk traditions.

  • Population: Approximately 6.9 million people.
  • Area: 110,994 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Sofia.
  • Official Language: Bulgarian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Bulgarian lev (BGN).
  • Major Cities: Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas.
  • Famous Landmarks: Rila Monastery, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tsarevets Fortress.
  • Cultural Contributions: Bulgarian folk music and dance (horo), Orthodox Christian art and architecture, and traditional cuisine (banitsa, Shopska salad).
  • Historical Significance: Home to Thracian and Roman civilizations, part of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, and joined the EU in 2007.

4. Croatia

Croatia, located in Southeast Europe along the Adriatic Sea, is known for its stunning coastline, medieval cities, and rich cultural heritage. It is a popular tourist destination, offering a blend of history, nature, and cuisine.

  • Population: Approximately 4 million people.
  • Area: 56,594 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Zagreb.
  • Official Language: Croatian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Croatian kuna (HRK).
  • Major Cities: Split, Rijeka, Osijek.
  • Famous Landmarks: Dubrovnik Old Town, Plitvice Lakes National Park, Diocletian’s Palace.
  • Cultural Contributions: Dalmatian music (klapa), traditional Croatian cuisine (čevapi, pasticada), and medieval architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of Yugoslavia, involved in the Croatian War of Independence, and joined the EU in 2013.

5. Cyprus

Cyprus, located in the Eastern Mediterranean, is known for its beautiful beaches, ancient ruins, and rich cultural heritage. It is a divided island, with the northern part controlled by Turkey and the southern part recognized internationally.

  • Population: Approximately 1.2 million people (in the Republic of Cyprus).
  • Area: 9,251 square kilometers (in the Republic of Cyprus).
  • Capital: Nicosia.
  • Official Languages: Greek, Turkish.
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic (in the Republic of Cyprus).
  • Currency: Euro (EUR) (in the Republic of Cyprus).
  • Major Cities: Limassol, Larnaca, Paphos.
  • Famous Landmarks: Ancient Kourion, Tombs of the Kings, Saint Hilarion Castle.
  • Cultural Contributions: Greek and Turkish Cypriot traditions, Cypriot cuisine (halloumi, souvlaki), and Byzantine and Ottoman architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Home to ancient civilizations such as the Greeks and Romans, divided since 1974 following a Turkish invasion, and joined the EU in 2004 (only the southern part).

6. Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning architecture, rich history, and cultural contributions. It is famous for its medieval castles, Gothic cathedrals, and beer culture.

  • Population: Approximately 10.7 million people.
  • Area: 78,866 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Prague.
  • Official Language: Czech.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Czech koruna (CZK).
  • Major Cities: Brno, Ostrava, Plzeň.
  • Famous Landmarks: Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Český Krumlov.
  • Cultural Contributions: Czech literature (Franz Kafka), classical music (Antonín Dvořák), and Bohemian cuisine (goulash, trdelník).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of Czechoslovakia, involved in the Velvet Revolution, and joined the EU in 2004.

7. Denmark

Denmark, located in Northern Europe, is known for its picturesque landscapes, historic cities, and strong welfare state. It is famous for its Viking heritage, fairy-tale castles, and innovative design.

  • Population: Approximately 5.8 million people.
  • Area: 42,933 square kilometers (excluding Greenland and the Faroe Islands).
  • Capital: Copenhagen.
  • Official Language: Danish.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Danish krone (DKK).
  • Major Cities: Aarhus, Odense, Aalborg.
  • Famous Landmarks: Tivoli Gardens, Frederiksborg Castle, The Little Mermaid statue.
  • Cultural Contributions: Danish design (Arne Jacobsen, LEGO), Nordic cuisine (smørrebrød, frikadeller), and Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a Viking stronghold, part of the Kalmar Union, and a founding member of the EU.

8. Estonia

Estonia, located in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its digital innovation, medieval architecture, and scenic landscapes. It is one of the most digitally advanced countries in the world.

  • Population: Approximately 1.3 million people.
  • Area: 45,227 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Tallinn.
  • Official Language: Estonian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Tartu, Narva, Pärnu.
  • Famous Landmarks: Tallinn Old Town, Lahemaa National Park, Parnu Beach.
  • Cultural Contributions: Estonian choral music (song festivals), traditional cuisine (mulgipuder, kama), and Hanseatic architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the Soviet Union, involved in the Singing Revolution, and joined the EU in 2004.

9. Finland

Finland, located in Northern Europe, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, sauna culture, and innovative design. It is also famous for its education system, which consistently ranks among the best in the world.

  • Population: Approximately 5.5 million people.
  • Area: 338,455 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Helsinki.
  • Official Languages: Finnish, Swedish.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Espoo, Tampere, Vantaa.
  • Famous Landmarks: Suomenlinna, Rovaniemi (Arctic Circle), Lake Saimaa.
  • Cultural Contributions: Finnish sauna culture, design (Marimekko, Alvar Aalto), and music (Jean Sibelius, Nightwish).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of Sweden and Russia, gained independence in 1917, and joined the EU in 1995.

10. France

France, located in Western Europe, is known for its rich history, art, culture, and cuisine. It is famous for landmarks such as the Eiffel Tower, Louvre Museum, and Versailles Palace.

  • Population: Approximately 67 million people.
  • Area: 551,695 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Paris.
  • Official Language: French.
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse.
  • Famous Landmarks: Eiffel Tower, Louvre Museum, Notre-Dame Cathedral.
  • Cultural Contributions: French cuisine (croissant, coq au vin), art (Claude Monet, Edith Piaf), and literature (Victor Hugo, Marcel Proust).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a major European power, site of the French Revolution, and a founding member of the EU.

11. Germany

Germany, located in Central Europe, is known for its strong economy, technological innovation, and rich cultural heritage. It is famous for its historic cities, castles, and Oktoberfest celebrations.

  • Population: Approximately 83 million people.
  • Area: 357,386 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Berlin.
  • Official Language: German.
  • Government: Federal parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Hamburg, Munich, Frankfurt.
  • Famous Landmarks: Brandenburg Gate, Neuschwanstein Castle, Cologne Cathedral.
  • Cultural Contributions: German philosophy (Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche), classical music (Ludwig van Beethoven, Johann Sebastian Bach), and cuisine (bratwurst, sauerkraut).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly divided into East and West Germany, site of major events such as the Reformation and World Wars, and a founding member of the EU.

12. Greece

Greece, located in Southern Europe, is known for its ancient civilization, stunning islands, and Mediterranean cuisine. It is famous for landmarks such as the Acropolis, Parthenon, and ancient Olympia.

  • Population: Approximately 10.4 million people.
  • Area: 131,957 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Athens.
  • Official Language: Greek.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Thessaloniki, Patras, Heraklion.
  • Famous Landmarks: Acropolis of Athens, Santorini, Delphi.
  • Cultural Contributions: Ancient Greek philosophy (Socrates, Plato), mythology (Zeus, Hercules), and cuisine (moussaka, souvlaki).
  • Historical Significance: Birthplace of democracy and Western civilization, site of the Olympic Games, and a member of the EU since 1981.

13. Hungary

Hungary, located in Central Europe, is known for its rich history, stunning architecture, and thermal baths. It is famous for landmarks such as the Parliament Building, Buda Castle, and Lake Balaton.

  • Population: Approximately 9.7 million people.
  • Area: 93,030 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Budapest.
  • Official Language: Hungarian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Hungarian forint (HUF).
  • Major Cities: Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc.
  • Famous Landmarks: Fisherman’s Bastion, Széchenyi Thermal Bath, Eger Castle.
  • Cultural Contributions: Hungarian cuisine (goulash, lángos), classical music (Franz Liszt, Béla Bartók), and folk traditions (dance, embroidery).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, involved in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, and joined the EU in 2004.

14. Ireland

Ireland, located in Northwestern Europe, is known for its stunning landscapes, rich literary tradition, and vibrant culture. It is famous for its Celtic heritage, Guinness beer, and traditional music.

  • Population: Approximately 4.9 million people (Republic of Ireland).
  • Area: 70,273 square kilometers (Republic of Ireland).
  • Capital: Dublin.
  • Official Languages: Irish, English (Republic of Ireland).
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic (Republic of Ireland).
  • Currency: Euro (EUR) (Republic of Ireland).
  • Major Cities: Cork, Galway, Limerick.
  • Famous Landmarks: Cliffs of Moher, Giant’s Causeway, Dublin Castle.
  • Cultural Contributions: Irish literature (James Joyce, W.B. Yeats), traditional music (Uilleann pipes, fiddle), and folklore (leprechauns, banshees).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the British Empire, gained independence in 1922, and a member of the EU since 1973.

15. Italy

Italy, located in Southern Europe, is known for its stunning art, architecture, cuisine, and diverse landscapes. It is famous for landmarks such as the Colosseum, Leaning Tower of Pisa, and Vatican City.

  • Population: Approximately 60.4 million people.
  • Area: 301,340 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Rome.
  • Official Language: Italian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Milan, Naples, Florence.
  • Famous Landmarks: Colosseum, Venice Canals, Pompeii.
  • Cultural Contributions: Italian Renaissance (Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo), opera (Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini), and cuisine (pizza, pasta).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly the center of the Roman Empire, birthplace of the Renaissance, and a founding member of the EU.

16. Latvia

Latvia, located in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its diverse landscapes, rich cultural heritage, and vibrant arts scene. It is famous for its medieval Old Towns, Art Nouveau architecture, and traditional festivals.

  • Population: Approximately 1.9 million people.
  • Area: 64,589 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Riga.
  • Official Language: Latvian.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Daugavpils, Liepāja, Jelgava.
  • Famous Landmarks: Riga Old Town, Jurmala Beach, Gauja National Park.
  • Cultural Contributions: Latvian folk music and dance, traditional cuisine (grey peas, speķa pīrāgi), and wooden architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the Soviet Union, regained independence in 1991, and joined the EU in 2004.

17. Lithuania

Lithuania, located in Northern Europe on the Baltic Sea, is known for its stunning landscapes, rich history, and vibrant cultural scene. It is famous for its medieval castles, pagan traditions, and amber jewelry.

  • Population: Approximately 2.8 million people.
  • Area: 65,300 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Vilnius.
  • Official Language: Lithuanian.
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Kaunas, Klaipėda, Šiauliai.
  • Famous Landmarks: Vilnius Old Town, Trakai Island Castle, Curonian Spit.
  • Cultural Contributions: Lithuanian folklore (hill of crosses), traditional music (sutartinės), and cuisine (cepelinai, šaltibarščiai).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, involved in the Baltic Way protest, and joined the EU in 2004.

18. Luxembourg

Luxembourg, located in Western Europe, is known for its stunning landscapes, historic castles, and strong economy. It is one of the smallest countries in Europe but is a major financial center.

  • Population: Approximately 634,000 people.
  • Area: 2,586 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Luxembourg City.
  • Official Languages: Luxembourgish, French, German.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Esch-sur-Alzette, Differdange, Dudelange.
  • Famous Landmarks: Luxembourg City Old Town, Vianden Castle, Mullerthal Trail.
  • Cultural Contributions: Luxembourgish folklore, traditional cuisine (judd mat gaardebounen, quetschentaart), and European institutions (European Court of Justice, European Investment Bank).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of various European empires, involved in the European Coal and Steel Community, and a founding member of the EU.

19. Malta

Malta, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its stunning coastline, rich history, and vibrant culture. It is famous for its ancient temples, medieval cities, and clear blue waters.

  • Population: Approximately 514,000 people.
  • Area: 316 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Valletta.
  • Official Languages: Maltese, English.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Birkirkara, Mosta, Qormi.
  • Famous Landmarks: Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum, Mdina, Blue Grotto.
  • Cultural Contributions: Maltese folklore (festas), traditional cuisine (pastizzi, rabbit stew), and Baroque architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Home to ancient civilizations such as the Phoenicians and Romans, involved in major Mediterranean conflicts, and joined the EU in 2004.

20. Netherlands

The Netherlands, located in Western Europe, is known for its flat landscapes, windmills, and tulip fields. It is famous for its vibrant cities, rich cultural heritage, and progressive social policies.

  • Population: Approximately 17.6 million people.
  • Area: 41,543 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Amsterdam.
  • Official Language: Dutch.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht.
  • Famous Landmarks: Keukenhof Gardens, Rijksmuseum, Anne Frank House.
  • Cultural Contributions: Dutch Golden Age art (Rembrandt, Vermeer), cycling culture, and Dutch cuisine (stroopwafels, herring).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a major colonial power, site of the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule, and a founding member of the EU.

21. Poland

Poland, located in Central Europe, is known for its rich history, medieval architecture, and hearty cuisine. It is famous for landmarks such as the Wawel Castle, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and the Old Towns of Kraków and Warsaw.

  • Population: Approximately 38 million people.
  • Area: 312,696 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Warsaw.
  • Official Language: Polish.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary republic.
  • Currency: Polish złoty (PLN).
  • Major Cities: Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław.
  • Famous Landmarks: Wawel Castle, Warsaw Old Town, Malbork Castle.
  • Cultural Contributions: Polish literature (Adam Mickiewicz, Wisława Szymborska), music (Frédéric Chopin), and cuisine (pierogi, bigos).
  • Historical Significance: Home to medieval kingdoms, involved in major European conflicts, and a member of the EU since 2004.

22. Portugal

Portugal, located in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, is known for its rich history, stunning coastline, and maritime heritage. It is famous for landmarks such as the Tower of Belém, Douro Valley, and Algarve beaches.

  • Population: Approximately 10.3 million people.
  • Area: 92,090 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Lisbon.
  • Official Language: Portuguese.
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Amadora.
  • Famous Landmarks: Jerónimos Monastery, Pena Palace, Cape Roca.
  • Cultural Contributions: Portuguese exploration (Vasco da Gama, Henry the Navigator), fado music, and cuisine (bacalhau, pastéis de nata).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a major maritime power, colonized territories across the globe, and a founding member of the EU.

23. Romania

Romania, located in Southeast Europe, is known for its stunning landscapes, medieval castles, and vibrant culture. It is famous for landmarks such as Bran Castle, Transfăgărășan Highway, and the painted monasteries of Bucovina.

  • Population: Approximately 19.2 million people.
  • Area: 238,397 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Bucharest.
  • Official Language: Romanian.
  • Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic.
  • Currency: Romanian leu (RON).
  • Major Cities: Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași.
  • Famous Landmarks: Peleș Castle, Sighișoara Citadel, Danube Delta.
  • Cultural Contributions: Romanian folklore (Doina, Călușari), traditional cuisine (sarmale, mămăligă), and Orthodox Christian heritage.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of the Roman Empire, influenced by various European powers, and joined the EU in 2007.

24. Slovakia

Slovakia, located in Central Europe, is known for its dramatic mountain landscapes, medieval castles, and rich folk traditions. It is famous for landmarks such as Spiš Castle, the High Tatras, and the wooden churches of the Carpathian region.

  • Population: Approximately 5.5 million people.
  • Area: 49,037 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Bratislava.
  • Official Language: Slovak.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Košice, Prešov, Žilina.
  • Famous Landmarks: Bratislava Castle, Bojnice Castle, Slovak Paradise National Park.
  • Cultural Contributions: Slovak folk music and dance (fujara, čardáš), traditional cuisine (bryndzové halušky, kapustnica), and wooden architecture.
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of Czechoslovakia, involved in the Velvet Revolution, and joined the EU in 2004.

25. Slovenia

Slovenia, located in Central Europe, is known for its stunning Alpine landscapes, medieval towns, and vibrant cultural scene. It is famous for landmarks such as Lake Bled, Postojna Cave, and Ljubljana Castle.

  • Population: Approximately 2.1 million people.
  • Area: 20,273 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Ljubljana.
  • Official Language: Slovene.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Maribor, Celje, Kranj.
  • Famous Landmarks: Predjama Castle, Triglav National Park, Ptuj Castle.
  • Cultural Contributions: Slovenian literature (France Prešeren), traditional music (slavko avsenik), and cuisine (potica, ajdovi žganci).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly part of Yugoslavia, gained independence in 1991, and joined the EU in 2004.

26. Spain

Spain, located in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula, is known for its diverse culture, stunning architecture, and vibrant fiestas. It is famous for landmarks such as the Sagrada Família, Alhambra, and Camino de Santiago.

  • Population: Approximately 47.4 million people.
  • Area: 505,990 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Madrid.
  • Official Language: Spanish.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Euro (EUR).
  • Major Cities: Barcelona, Valencia, Seville.
  • Famous Landmarks: Sagrada Família, Alhambra, Park Güell.
  • Cultural Contributions: Spanish literature (Miguel de Cervantes), flamenco music and dance, and Spanish cuisine (paella, tapas).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a major colonial power, site of various civilizations including the Moors and Romans, and a founding member of the EU.

27. Sweden

Sweden, located in Northern Europe, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, innovative design, and progressive social policies. It is famous for landmarks such as Stockholm’s Old Town, the Vasa Museum, and the Northern Lights.

  • Population: Approximately 10.4 million people.
  • Area: 450,295 square kilometers.
  • Capital: Stockholm.
  • Official Language: Swedish.
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
  • Currency: Swedish krona (SEK).
  • Major Cities: Gothenburg, Malmö, Uppsala.
  • Famous Landmarks: Gamla Stan, Icehotel, Drottningholm Palace.
  • Cultural Contributions: Swedish design (IKEA, H&M), music (ABBA, Avicii), and cuisine (smörgåsbord, meatballs).
  • Historical Significance: Formerly a Viking stronghold, part of the Kalmar Union, and a member of the EU since 1995.