South America Countries

South America is the fourth largest continent in terms of land area, covering approximately 17.84 million square kilometers (6.89 million square miles). It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and is connected to North America via the narrow Isthmus of Panama. South America comprises 12 independent countries and three dependent territories. The countries are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The dependent territories are the Falkland Islands (UK), French Guiana (France), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (UK).

1. Argentina

  • Capital: Buenos Aires
  • Population: Approximately 45 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Argentine peso (ARS)
  • Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic

Argentina, located in the southern part of South America, is known for its diverse landscapes, including the Andes mountains, Patagonian steppes, and fertile pampas. It has a rich cultural heritage, with influences from indigenous peoples, European immigrants, and African descendants. Argentina is famous for its tango music and dance, as well as its beef-based cuisine.

2. Bolivia

  • Capital: Sucre (constitutional), La Paz (seat of government)
  • Population: Around 11.5 million
  • Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
  • Currency: Bolivian boliviano (BOB)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Bolivia, located in the heart of South America, is known for its diverse geography, including the Andes mountains, Amazon rainforest, and high-altitude plains. It has a large indigenous population and a rich cultural heritage, with vibrant traditions and festivals. Bolivia is famous for its colorful markets, ancient ruins, and traditional music.

3. Brazil

  • Capital: Brasília
  • Population: Over 212 million
  • Language: Portuguese
  • Currency: Brazilian real (BRL)
  • Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic

Brazil, the largest country in South America, is known for its vast Amazon rainforest, beautiful beaches, and vibrant cities like Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It has a diverse culture, influenced by indigenous, African, European, and Asian heritage. Brazil is famous for its carnival celebrations, samba music, and football (soccer) passion.

4. Chile

  • Capital: Santiago
  • Population: Approximately 19 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Chilean peso (CLP)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Chile, a long and narrow country on the western coast of South America, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, including the Atacama Desert, Andes mountains, and fjords of Patagonia. It has a stable economy, strong democratic institutions, and a rich cultural heritage. Chile is famous for its wine production, seafood cuisine, and literary tradition.

5. Colombia

  • Capital: Bogotá
  • Population: Around 50 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Colombian peso (COP)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Colombia, located in the northwest corner of South America, is known for its diverse geography, including the Andes mountains, Amazon rainforest, and Caribbean coastline. It has a rich cultural heritage, with influences from indigenous peoples, African slaves, and Spanish colonizers. Colombia is famous for its coffee, emeralds, and salsa music.

6. Ecuador

  • Capital: Quito
  • Population: Approximately 17 million
  • Language: Spanish, Quechua
  • Currency: United States dollar (USD)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Ecuador, situated on the equator in the northwest corner of South America, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, including the Andes mountains, Amazon rainforest, and Galápagos Islands. It has a diverse population, with indigenous peoples, mestizos, and Afro-Ecuadorians contributing to its rich cultural heritage. Ecuador is famous for its biodiversity, indigenous crafts, and traditional cuisine.

7. Guyana

  • Capital: Georgetown
  • Population: Around 780,000
  • Language: English
  • Currency: Guyanese dollar (GYD)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Guyana, located on the northern coast of South America, is known for its diverse ecosystems, including tropical rainforests, savannas, and mangrove swamps. It has a multicultural society, with influences from indigenous peoples, African slaves, Indian indentured laborers, and European colonizers. Guyana is famous for its Kaieteur Falls, rum production, and cricket passion.

8. Paraguay

  • Capital: Asunción
  • Population: Approximately 7 million
  • Language: Spanish, Guaraní
  • Currency: Paraguayan guaraní (PYG)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Paraguay, located in the heart of South America, is known for its Guarani-speaking indigenous population, Jesuit missions, and colonial architecture. It has a rich cultural heritage, with influences from indigenous traditions, Spanish colonizers, and European immigrants. Paraguay is famous for its yerba mate tea, traditional harp music, and Jesuit ruins.

9. Peru

  • Capital: Lima
  • Population: Over 32 million
  • Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara
  • Currency: Peruvian sol (PEN)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Peru, located on the western coast of South America, is known for its ancient Inca ruins, including Machu Picchu and the Nazca Lines. It has a diverse geography, with the Andes mountains, Amazon rainforest, and Pacific coastline. Peru has a rich cultural heritage, with influences from indigenous civilizations, Spanish colonizers, and African slaves. It is famous for its ceviche, Andean textiles, and traditional festivals.

10. Suriname

  • Capital: Paramaribo
  • Population: Around 600,000
  • Language: Dutch
  • Currency: Surinamese dollar (SRD)
  • Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic

Suriname, located on the northeastern coast of South America, is known for its diverse ethnic makeup, including Creoles, Hindustanis, Javanese, Maroons, and Indigenous peoples. It has a rich cultural heritage, with influences from Dutch colonizers, African slaves, and indentured laborers from Asia. Suriname is famous for its biodiversity, tropical rainforests, and multicultural festivals.

11. Uruguay

  • Capital: Montevideo
  • Population: Approximately 3.5 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Uruguayan peso (UYU)
  • Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic

Uruguay, situated on the southeastern coast of South America, is known for its progressive social policies, stable democracy, and beautiful beaches along the Atlantic coast. It has a strong cultural heritage, with influences from European immigrants, African slaves, and indigenous peoples. Uruguay is famous for its beef production, mate tea culture, and tango music.

12. Venezuela

  • Capital: Caracas
  • Population: Around 28 million
  • Language: Spanish
  • Currency: Venezuelan bolívar (VES)
  • Government: Federal presidential constitutional republic

Venezuela, located on the northern coast of South America, is known for its stunning natural landscapes, including the Andes mountains, Orinoco River basin, and Caribbean coastline. It has a diverse population, with mestizos, African descendants, indigenous peoples, and European immigrants contributing to its rich cultural heritage. Venezuela is famous for its oil reserves, Angel Falls, and salsa music.